DNA of a Master Developer

Master Developers are real estate developers who build Master Planned Communities. This post expands on the ingredients needed to become a great Master Developer, outlined by Urban & Civic, a Master Developer, in their infographic.


Target big, complex sites in key growth locations

Study urban growth patterns and predict where new developments will happen. Acquire the most land you can afford to benefit from land appreciation created in the first phases.

Invest in the land for long-dated returns

Master-planned communities are like icebergs — they are massive and move slowly. MPCs require a lot of investments to transform undeveloped land into developed, functional, and aspirational for the first residents to move in. Recruit partners who have long-term investment horizons.

Work with like-minded partners

Attract high-quality shareholders, talent, and clients who share your values and add value to the project. Work hard to maintain and raise the quality bar in every aspect.

Recognize every site demands a customized approach

Every site has unique topography and engineering challenges. The market is always different. Learn to adapt to the context and attempt to understand the market. Highlight and incorporate natural environments into the master plan.


Ensure senior team engagement with stakeholders and communities

Master-planned communities significantly impact the city. It is human nature to resist change. That is why the NIMBYism movement against development exists. Therefore, excellent relationships with public entities and surrounding stakeholders are paramount to minimize unforeseen setbacks.

Trust is earned by making and delivering on promises

Build what you say you will build and work to exceed stakeholders’ expectations. The job of a Master Developer is selling a vision, securing funding, and making it happen. Rinse and repeat.

Cut through jargon and complexity – explain, illustrate and guide

It is hard to transmit the idea of an unbuilt vision. Make sure to develop clear communication skills and invest in graphic materials, like renders, of what you will achieve. Make sure to align the design and construction with the marketing material.

With a 20-year consent – build in flexibility from the outset as things will change

The needs of the market change with time, and master plans must evolve to capitalize on those changes. That is to say you don’t need to have the last phase designed in detail from the beginning. Create space to incorporate lessons learned into future phases.


De-risk issues at the earliest opportunity

Recognize all possible risks and have a strategy to mitigate them. For example:

  • Lower market risk by attracting anchor tenants like universities, schools, and town centers.
  • Lower finance risk by conducting feasibility studies, buying land at the right price, having wealthy shareholders, excellent relationships with banks, and having long-term financing.
  • Lower construction risk by hiring outstanding engineering designers, general contractors, and third-party inspectors.
  • Lower product risk by conducting market studies and understanding your customer.
Assume responsibility for the delivery of infrastructure to maintain momentum

The project should always be moving forward. Master-planned communities behave like a snowball rolling downhill; they start slow and small, but as you move forward, it moves faster and bigger. To clarify, more infrastructure and residents increase the market size for potential new businesses, thus increasing the value of the project and creating a virtuous cycle.

Work at scale to create efficiency

The headache and management costs of building a 1-kilometer road are almost the same as building 5 kilometers. As a result, you should build the most you can while maintaining a healthy percentage of sales (>40%) and keeping your debt in check.

Establish multiple points of sale to enhance absorption

Experiment with various markets to understand what works and double down on those who do. Make sure to understand which price points can have high absorption and differentiate your product. Experiment with age groups, price points, and interests.


Keep control by not selling off large parcels

Selling large parcels might make you lose control and put the vision at risk. All pieces of land must follow the code and add value to the project. The job of the Master Developer is to build out the vision from start to finish.

Package land consistently across phases and sites

Master-planned communities must be thought of as an assembly line. When building one phase, you must plan and sell the next one. Designing, financing, and building is a continuous endeavor. Build a constant supply of residences to keep the ball moving forward.

Create a level playing field for all sizes of housebuilders to compete

Help everyone involved in the project make money. This creates a virtuous cycle of repeat customers because they reinvest in the project. Especially help homebuilders. Their success is your success, and their failure is your failure. The Master Developer must orchestrate homebuilders, so they must enact equal rules and allow fair competition.

Be prepared to self-deliver the more difficult plots to maintain quality and values

There are always hard lots or residences to sell in every project. Not all properties can have the best views and locations. Acquire the skills to develop those lots.


Establish a quality benchmark from the start

The first project in the master-planned community sets the standard for the rest of the project. Make sure to control it and do the best job possible. This is a high leverage move.

Use planning, contracts, and the example of self-delivery to maintain standards

Develop a code to maintain the vision and build the first project according to it. Make sure to include the code in the purchase agreement contract.

Ensure your team cares about the details

The heart of the customer is in the details. Become customer-centric and ensure everything you build is functional, feasible, and beautiful. Architecture must get inspiration from local, vernacular architecture and respond to the climate. Public spaces and street trees must be exceptionally well thought out.

You don’t need to spend more; you need to spend it smarter

Some solutions might cost the same, but one is much more beautiful and aspiring. One example is brick roads vs. concrete roads. A misconception is that brick road are more expensive, but they might be cheaper depending on the market, materials chosen, and labor costs. Another example is to provide spaces early on for basic needs like convenience stores, access to urgent care, and education. These services offer outsized values to residents with marginal investment.


Patient, experienced capital, is required

Master-planned communities are often intergenerational endeavors. Investment returns might take more time to materialize than usual real estate development projects. Raise funds from investors with know-how who can provide advice and resources.

Investment needs to be aligned with a commitment to quality

Invest in great architects to generate great designs, especially the master plan. Invest in materials that stand the test of time, and that can be easily maintained. One example is investing in street trees; time makes those streets look better.

Actively use public funds to accelerate delivery

Use the financial markets to increase your leverage and build faster the master-planned community. Raising public funds creates more ambassadors and alignment with the community.

Maintain delivery throughout economic cycles

Master-planned communities are multi-decade ventures; therefore, they are bound to experience bearish economic cycles. Plan for them and make sure to keep the momentum strong.

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What is a Master Planned Community?

Master Planned Communities (MPCs) are urban-scale, mixed-use real estate developments where residents live, work, and play. They are built on undeveloped land, called greenfield development. MPCs are frequently located strategically on the edge of a city with strong projected urban growth. They are self-contained towns with clear boundaries, built for convenience, aiming to satisfy all needs within the community. You can think of them as the real-life version of Sim City.

MPCs usually have more than 1,000 residences and 247 acres (100 hectares); these numbers can be much more significant. Common amenities include cultural centers, golf courses, medical centers, parks, playgrounds, public spaces, restaurants, schools, sports facilities, temples, tennis courts, town centers, universities, walking trails, and more.

Private real estate developers typically develop master planned communities, in this case, called Master Developers. Master Developers must have the skills to craft a vision and coordinate a wide variety of real estate-related professionals that can help the project come to fruition.

Master Developers develop the infrastructure and public spaces. Using industry terms, they build everything “horizontally”; which includes basic infrastructure systems like sewage, stormwater, water, electricity, telecommunications, and roads. Master Developers sometimes decide to construct buildings or develop “vertically.”

The MPC standard business model is that the Master Developer buys a big plot of land, subdivides it; builds infrastructure and amenities; and sells land to anchor tenants like schools or universities. Some Master Developers choose a decentralized model where they sell to homebuilders to develop neighborhoods and commercial developers to build restaurants, shopping centers, etc. Others prefer a centralized model and align vertically to build residential and commercial buildings.

MPCs start by designing a Master Plan. Then it is built in phases throughout a multi-decade time horizon. They usually have a unified architectural vision encoded in the Architecture Code. All lots and buildings must be built according to it.

MPCs include a wide diversity of land uses, lot sizes, housing, and prices designed to attract multiple market segments. MPCs typically have private governance, such as a Homeowners Association, to regulate the relationship between owners, maintain public spaces, and enforce the vision.

Common marketing characteristics include great infrastructure, planned urbanism, housing for all age groups, a sense of community, a connection to nature, an active lifestyle, a healthy way of living, and convenience.

More often than not, urban development patterns are suburban and exclusively car-oriented. However, the New Urbanism movement has influenced MPCs making them more urban and walkable.

MPCs can grow very big and complex. Their evolution usually starts with a few residences, then to neighborhoods, then to a town, and then to a city. Company towns are prime examples of master planned communities.

Entrepreneurs who want to build ambitious Startup Cities can learn a lot from studying patterns of master planned communities and their Master Developers.

10 examples of Master Planned Communities



City of Irvine

Las Catalinas

Porta Norte

  • Website: www.portanorte.com
  • Concept: Solarpunk new urbanist town inspired by Casco Viejo and designed by Andres Duany.
  • Location: Panama City, Panama




The Villages

The Woodlands

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Book Summary: Making it in Real Estate

Starting out as a (real estate) developer

Real estate development is a cross-disciplinary field where you need to orchestrate various professionals to build infrastructure and buildings. This book provides strategic advice for becoming an effective real estate developer.

The author, John McNellis, founded and led a commercial development firm focused on retail and shopping centers since the 1980s.

This book has two parts. The first has 40 chapters and focuses on lessons learned in real estate development. The second, chapters 41 to 46, are about philosophy and life decisions. The second part was nice, but it seems out of context. I rather read Alain de Botton or Seneca instead if I want life advice.

The following is John’s advice I liked most:

Starting Out

New developers typically need to pull off their first deal playing every instrument in the orchestra: investment broker, contractor, day laborer, property manager, janitor, lawyer, accountant, leasing, mortgage broker, etc. There is a benefit to this extra effort: just as a conductor of an orchestra must know how all his musicians should sound, a developer should understand what your service providers do, and doing it yourself is a quick way to get it.

New developers should ask themselves where they want to be in 20 years. Would you want to be a media darling running a big company and doing the splashiest deals in town? Or would you prefer smaller projects that help you slowly build assets and increase free cash flow?

You’re better off deciding the big picture question before your first deal because you might be unable to make the right decisions without a defined strategy to guide you. In other words, unless you plan ahead, the sell or hold decision may be a luxury you cannot afford. The fastest projects take at least two years before you can cash in and more likely three to five years from when you saw a property to the day you sell.

If we oversimplify, there are two types of real estate developers: investment builders and merchant builders. Investment builders build to hold assets for the long term as a portfolio investment, while merchant builders build to sell; they do more deals and profit much sooner.

If you want to run a giant development firm, become a merchant builder. If you want the luxury of deciding which deals to keep and slowly building your cash flow, consider investment building. If you go the investor route, choose the properties you keep carefully: many have their finest hour when inaugurated.

The best, but uninspiring strategy, might be the build to hold approach.

Choosing a Focus

If you don’t specialize, your specialty will be failure.

“We started in apartments like almost all new developers, but they didn’t work for us. Richer in experience but little else, we decided we had no wish to own buildings where anyone slept. Since, we have developed neighborhood shopping centers in cities that fight new developments, thus limiting supply.”

John’s development projects are “necessity retail” (supermarkets, drugstores, and discount department stores); they range from 25,000 ft² (2,300 m²) to 150,000 ft² (14,000 m²), located within a two-hour drive of San Francisco.

John’s firm’s strategy: accumulate fewer but higher-quality properties with lower debt rather than amassing a portfolio that requires a big overhead.


Grow your deal size slowly.

The big-picture risk management for developers is the classic tactic of using other people’s money, taking fees upfront, and never signing recourse (personal guarantees).

The long-term investment approach is investing enough equity to survive any recession and avoid building speculative projects. Spec buildings are those with a build it, and they will come mentality—without having sold to a customer.

It’s hard to hit a home run paying all cash, but it’s also impossible to strike out, and since even the best in our business lose money, you might seriously consider being conservative. Slow and steady wins the race.


What you do doesn’t matter as much as where you do it.

As Warren Buffett said, “I’d rather be a mediocre developer in a high-growth city than a brilliant developer in a mediocre city.”

Market timing is a scarce talent. Buying in a down market requires a cast-iron stomach and a prophet’s certainty of the future, and the ability to raise patient money when few others can. It might be easier to buy and sell on an established pattern, say, two to three deals a year, and then stick with it like a farmer with his annual plantings.

Challenges of Retail


According to Forbes, the United States have roughly 50 ft² (4.6 m²) of retail space per capita, while Europe has just 2.5 ft² (0.23 m²).

Inexperienced developers often talk themselves out of acknowledging market conditions.


The internet has driven some merchants and retail categories out of business. Its most significant effect has been to reduce retailers’ overall profitability and shrink their store sizes. They’re doing so to pursue a combination of physical and online strategies. This is a major concern for commercial developers because their clients need less space.

Until e-commerce and bricks&mortar finally merge, retail will be suffering from a debilitating, but not deadly, internet-spawned flu.

Private Equity

“Since the end of the Great Recession, retailer after retailer has been similarly killed. Payless Shoes, Toys’ R’ Us, PetSmart, Gymboree, Sears, Mattress Firm, and Radio Shack—all companies owned by private equity—have gone bankrupt since 2012. Debtwire, a financial news service, calculates that about 40% of all U.S. retail bankruptcies in recent years were private-equity backed.”

How do private equity firms do it? Simple: the Leveraged Buyout (LBO). An LBO is the acquisition of another company using a significant amount of borrowed money (bonds or loans) to meet the cost of acquisition. The assets of the company being acquired are often used as collateral for the loans, along with the acquiring company’s assets.

The LBO is a highly effective play that is difficult to counter. In short, the private equity firm pays top dollar for a given retailer, often even overpaying, but using little equity and a lot of debt using the retailer’s assets as collateral. The private equity then improves the company’s profitability through excessive cost-cutting and rewards itself with a significant dividend, often recovering their entire initial investment and a substantial profit. Then they let the companies drown in debt.

Private equity has a toxic effect on retail. An episode of The Sopranos is a perfect illustration of how private equity destroys retailers.

“Bust Out” (season 2, episode 10)

Mobster Tony’s boyhood friend, Davey, borrows money from him to pay gambling losses. He didn’t repay Tony. In retaliation, Tony takes over Davey’s sporting goods store. Knowing he will never pay a single bill, Tony orders ten times the store’s inventory and then sells it all at a discount for cash–which he keeps. Consequently destroying Davey’s credit and forcing him into bankruptcy.

The Retailers

Wall street force retailers to grow or die. When a company has slow growth, private equity goes for the jugular. The company will be bought and chopped up for parts, the CEO and his management team will lose their jobs, and the new real estate managers will receive big bonuses.

You can do everything right in retail and still lose because of conditions beyond your control. How do you mitigate the risk of a tenant’s bankruptcy or being killed by private equity? You diversify: develop multitenant properties in which the loss of a single-tenant is merely painful, not lethal.

Retail is a tricky business. The threats from e-commerce, changing tastes, and ever-more-nimble competitors are real.

Retail’s safe harbor against those headwinds is what we now call essential retail—goods and services people cannot do without, even during a societal shutdown.

Should you consider retail development? Only if you start with an established company that knows the business and devote yourself full time to it. It is a highly specialized area of development that punishes those who merely wet their feet.

Finding Deals

Finding great deals among existing buildings is much more complicated than starting with undeveloped land.

“The bad deals came early in our career, the good deals came late. Why? Because great deals usually start with a great purchase. And how do you pull that off? You pay cash and use an escrow account—a tactic beyond a beginner’s reach.”

Veteran developers advise you to build in good times because you can’t find decently priced existing buildings and buy in bad when projects sell for less than replacement cost.

There’s no such thing as bad real estate, only bad pricing. Maybe it works for you at some number.

Deal Structure

Manage risk by investing a lot of equity and little debt, growing your portfolio slowly, and using the classic structure for developments: use other people’s money, take fees upfront and never give a personal guarantee to a bank (non-recourse loans).

Suppose your partner invests 90% of the equity (the usual arrangement) into a partnership in which you have no personal liability and that partnership’s external borrowing is also non-recourse. In that case, you can make real money while having minimal risk.

For example, you will develop a project that costs $10 million and will be worth $13 million on completion. It requires $4 million in equity. A bank will lend your partnership the remaining $6 million on a non-recourse basis. Your partner puts up $3.6 million, and you write a check for $400,000, a mere 4% of the total project cost. If the project tanks—some do—your loss is only $400,000, but truth be told, you probably charged that much in development fees during construction. Even as a loser, you’re home free.

Why would you develop with your own money? Because with no outside partners, you control your decisions. You can personally decide to keep a property as long as you like or sell it overnight on a hunch. You also avoid quarterly reports and explanations to investors.

“No Partners, fewer problems, more control.”

It is reasonable to forgo the glamour of owning a little equity in a high-rise and instead buy a corner store of your own. Having control over your life might outweigh the benefits of financial partners.

“We left the financial partner world in the early 1990s, moving from large deals in joint ventures to projects one-10th the size without financial partners, using our limited capital. That decision has worked out.”

“Over time, we have averaged a couple of projects a year. We have typically sold two out of three completed properties to generate capital for our next project. To our surprise, we found we had netted as much from these small, 100% owned projects as from joint ventures. But with much fewer headaches.”

Always calculate every deal’s “Net To Me” (NTM). An entrepreneur, someone who risks what little capital they have and years of their life on a project, should know what they earn if the deal works out.

In considering your NTM, solve for your hourly rate. How long is this going to take? How much of my life must I devote to this project? In doing so, ponder the advice a sage contractor gave a homeowner about her idea to remodel: “It will cost twice as much and take three times as long as you initially believe.”

We have heard many times easily anticipated disappointments in career-launching projects. The typical problem is that the profit share was not well structured from the beginning. You can mitigate this risk by calculating the NTM before making the deal. Make sure the prize is worth the effort.

Team Building

If you desire to tackle big projects, you will need help with the skills you lack. The question is, should your help come from consultants, employees, or partners?

As long as you can rent any profession—legal, architectural, engineering, etc.—and still get first-rate work on the day you need it, you will be better off renting rather than buying. Outsource everything you can. Nothing runs up a tab like employees.

To get the highest-quality output from consultants, hire the most experienced person you can afford who will do the work themselves. Remember, you are always hiring an individual, not their company or firm. Hiring the fanciest firm in town does you no good if a junior associate is assigned your work. A fantastic hack is to hire well-seasoned solo practitioners.

You need two at least two providers for each service—two contractors, two architects, two engineers, etc. And they should know about one another. Why? Because you want them to compete, and it is healthy to have a backup plan. Eventually, your favorite consultant will be unavailable to you.

We hire an independent consultant to act as our owner’s representative for our construction. But here’s the point: he’s paid by the hour, and should we ever cease building, we would have no ongoing financial obligation to him.

The partnership of a skilled developer and a top architect may prove wonderful, often producing glorious offspring: a building, an entire neighborhood that fits well with its surroundings, is embraced by its community, and is profitable from the beginning.


You can handle construction in three different ways:

  1. Bid to three contractors: If you decide to bid out your project to multiple general contractors, be careful of low outlier bids. Dishonest contractors will bid low intending to make it up in change orders (especially if you are perceived as inexperienced). If three bids are close to one another at $10 million while a fourth is $8 million, and you accept the lower bid, you will likely be buying yourself more than $2 million’s worth of trouble.
  2. Build yourself: Once developers reach a certain size, they are tempted to align vertically and take construction in-house. Fee-driven merchant builders have a higher incentive to control the entire construction process to keep the contractor’s fees. Developers ignore a thousand ways a contractor can go broke and ask themselves, “How hard can it be?” And jump into the construction business. Developers that do everything in-house—from entitlements to architecture to construction—are often successful in bull markets. In a recession, they can’t keep up with overhead, consequently forced to lay off workers or go broke.
  3. Work from the start with one contractor: This means choosing a contractor from the moment a deal seems real and sticking with them to the end. Having a practical contractor early helps prevent your architect from designing a monument for themselves. The contractor is the yin to the architect’s yang: they will point to what part of your architect’s vision can be optimized. For example, that curved lines in buildings are more expensive than right angles or that there can be such a thing as too much glass in a building. In short, the value engineering—the reality check—a contractor provides to your design early on can be invaluable, especially if you’re new to the game. The downside to this approach is losing the ability to bid out the project. If this is a concern, you can still select your preferred contractor at the outset but agree that you will pay him a fair “walk away” fee if they don’t win.

Thick contracts won’t help with a crooked or inept general contractor. A handshake suffices 90% of the time with an honest, competent one. The contract is just a reminder of everyone’s responsibilities.

We stopped bidding out our projects nearly 20 years ago, relying on a couple of top contractors with whom we do business almost every year, making them part of our team.

Our general contractors work with us from day one—before anyone knows if a project will be built. They provide us with value engineering and cost estimating on one plan iteration after another, all without charge, because they know that if the project proceeds, the work is theirs. This is the right way to relate with general contractors.

Consider not issuing insurance construction bonds. They are expensive, and you will learn that insurance companies pay off infrequently if you ever do claim them. It is better just to verify that your contractor is “bondable.”


Whenever someone pitches you a deal, an excellent question is: “Why are they selling?” Be extra skeptical if the answer doesn’t involve a compelling need to sell (e.g., death, disaster, dissolution, or divorce).

The best time to find a motivated and realistic seller is when no one else is buying. “Buy when there’s blood in the streets.”

When confronted with an unrealistic seller, we usually advise the broker that teaching market values to a seller is not our business. Thus, we lose deals.

Try to meet the seller and become their new best friend. You will learn a lot only by visiting them at their office.

Vast land and easy approvals lead to overbuilding. The doom formula is:

easy zoning + easy money + many developers = death spiral of overbuilding

Smart money loves core properties because developers are more likely to generate cash in central locations where all the land is already built out. The best defense is to own properties where the zoning and approval process is challenging.

Sellers tend to be smart enough, and when they are dumb, their stupidity more often lies in overvaluing their holdings than in wanting to give them away.

Never buy unzoned property.

Actual off-market property may be a worthy prize, but brokers are seldom involved because principals deal directly with other principals.

A great deal is rarely great on the first day it is offered to you; no one consciously gives anything away in business.

If a property stays on the market for a long time, a frustrated seller may become reasonable. You don’t want a building at a $10 million asking price, but at $6 million, the property might work. And then you wait…and wait. The seller will pull his property off the market, or someone will outbid you. But if you bait enough hooks, a fish will come along.


If you develop or invest in property, you’re in the business of borrowing money.

The Family & Friends (F&F) profit-sharing formula: The equity gets a preferred return a few percentage points higher than Treasury bills from the project’s free cash flow. Once that’s paid, any remaining cash is split 50/50 between equity holders and the developer.

Two basic loans predominate in real estate: 

  1. Permanent loans: They are for stabilized assets like a leased office building. They have a lower risk and usually have a long-term duration (> 10 years).
  2. Construction loans: They are for constructions like building a new high-rise. They have a higher risk and usually have a low-term duration (~ 2 years).

It is impossible to predict real estate prices ten years from now. Be careful with those long-term proformas.

High-end sales brochures and investment committee reports routinely contain impressive Argus (commercial real estate software) spreadsheets that magically produce the IRR the buyer or investment committee desires. The magic is easy; keep raising the anticipated 10th-year sales price until you hit the desired IRR. Who will be around in 10 years to tell the analyst they were wrong?

Alternative interpretations of the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) are “Inflated Rate of Return” or “I Rationalize Risk” should come to the mind of anyone confronted with spreadsheets predicting rising rents, falling expenses, and zero vacancies.

There are two kinds of lenders: those who’ll admit they’re not lending a dime and those who pretend they are.

A banker is a successful developer’s best friend. But beware because your banker will want a committed, monogamous relationship.

Despite the best intentions, your banker is only as good as the last loan she committed to you. She may even become a friend. Eventually, she will be on vacation, quit, retires, or be in the hospital the week you need a loan commitment. Or, her bank will be merged out of existence (this has happened to us three times), be taken over by the feds, or stop making real estate loans.

The solution? You need an open relationship with three bankers at three different banks. That way, the lights are always on somewhere.


Valuing property is subjective. Think about it: appraisers use three different approaches to evaluate a commercial property:

  1. Replacement cost.
  2. Comparable sales.
  3. Income capitalization.

Appraising is still as much art as science.


We sell if:

  • Our return on cost is too low either because our construction costs went over budget or we failed to achieve anticipated rents.
  • The barriers to entry for our project’s future competitors are low.
  • We have concerns about our tenants’ longevity or the quality of our location.

We keep our high-yielding properties in competition-constrained environments.


Wise principals spend quality time with their favorite brokers. Why? Because they are genuinely friends, and it doesn’t hurt when it comes to getting the “first call, last look” on deals.

Beyond treating agents with respect, choosing the right one matters because the best agents are as specialized as the best principals.

This book is written under the Urban Land Institute (ULI) umbrella in the U.S. The ULI comprises real estate developers and related professionals who share best practices.

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A lever is a tool used to increase power with low effort. Using a physical lever, you can easily lift things that weigh much more than you —like a car— with minimal effort.

Leverage is the use of tools for your maximum advantage. It can multiply the outcomes from your effort, skill, and judgment. Leverage can help you achieve your life goals like financial independence, creating a movement, or a massive business with fewer competitors.

Archimedes, the most famous mathematician and inventor in ancient Greece, once said:

“Give me a place to stand and a lever long enough, and I will move the world.”

Archimedes using a lever to move the world
Archimedes lever, from Mechanics Magazine, published in London in 1824

A bicycle is a form of leverage for movement; you can move much farther and faster with it. In this video of Steve Jobs, he explains a study of the world’s species and their ability to move from one place to another. In the study, humans ended up in the bottom half, but if you gave them a bicycle, they ended up #1 in the world. He uses this example to explain: “For me, computers have always been a bicycle for the mind. Something that takes us far beyond our inherent abilities.” Computers are a form of leverage for the mind.

Now let’s detail the types of business leverages in chronological order.

Labor: It means other people working for you. Labor is the predominant form of leverage since the dawn of man. 

Arguably labor leverage is the worst form of leverage. Managing other people is incredibly messy because it requires tremendous leadership skills, and it is hugely competed over. 

You want the minimum number of people with the highest output, working with you to use the following forms of leverage that are more powerful and interesting.

Money: It means using money to work for you. It has been around for only thousands of years, so society understands them less well than labor. 

This leverage converts to other types of leverage. It scales very well; if you can manage money well, you can handle more money better than manage more labor. It is an excellent form of leverage, but it is hard to obtain because you need to build up a reputation first.

Money has been the predominant leverage for wealth creation in the last century. Those who control the infrastructure of money have benefitted the most. 

Products with no marginal costs of replication —media and code— are the newest forms of leverage.

Naval Ravikant

Media: It got started with the printing press, and then it grew stronger with broadcast media. Now the internet and code had made this leverage explode.

Media means using the internet to spread content through social media, books, blogs, podcasts, or videos to gain influence and power.

A couple of hundreds ago, to spread a message by voice, you had to give a lecture at a University, now you can buy a cheap microphone, a computer and reach millions of people through the internet.

Code: It means programming and using computers to create products and services.  

We have an army of robots at our disposal on the internet; we need to learn how to use them. Hence the importance of learning to code to speak their language. 

Media and code help create the new fortunes of the world. They are permissionless; you can do it by yourself without the approval of anyone. They even enable labor and money to be more permissionless with the rise of communities and crowdfunding.

The older the leverage, the more time society has had to learn it, thus higher the competition —which you want to avoid. This is why it is essential to invest in the newer ones —digital leverage.

Jack Butcher Diagram on Digital Leverage
Jack Butcher’s Diagram of Digital Leverage

Pick Business Models with Network Effects

When choosing a business model, you should be aware of leverage that arises from network effects.

A network effect is when each additional user adds value to the existing user base. Network effects come from computer networking. Bob Metcalfe, who created the ethernet, famously coined Metcalfe’s Law: the value of a network is proportional to the square of the system’s number of connected users. If a network of size 10 has a value of 1,000, then a network of 100 would have a value of 10,000.

Metcalfe's Law
Diagram of Metcalfe’s Law

The classic example of network effects is language. Let’s say that there are 100 people in a community. There are 10 languages and 10 speakers per language. Now the community has to incur the cost of translation. If all 100 spoke the same language, it would reduce friction and eliminate the translation cost, thus facilitating value creation.

Let’s say one of those languages is English, and 1 additional person learns English. Now 11 people know English. The next person who wants to learn a new language will probably choose English —the most used language. Then this reason becomes stronger, and eventually, the majority end up speaking English, and the rest of the language will vanish slowly. The network effect is why the whole world will probably speak English or Chinese in the long term —at least as a second language.

The internet is a significant lever, and people who want to communicate on the internet are forced to learn English because it is the most used language. If you don’t know English, you will have a severe disadvantage in your education because there are so many internet resources that have not been translated. On top of that, translations are usually worse than in the original language. If you want to be technically competent in computers, you need to know English because it is the language of the best sources.

In business, network effects often have scale economies: the more you produce something, the cheaper it gets to make it, thus increasing margins, creating barriers to entry and monopolies. An example of scale economics can be Google, which has the biggest market for search and a monopoly.

Technology and media products have zero marginal cost of reproduction: additional consumers add no additional costs. For example, a famous podcaster can have 100 million more listeners without any additional costs.

When thinking about businesses, think about how each additional customer could add value to each other. Pick a business model where you benefit from network effects, scale economies, and low marginal costs. 

From Laborer to Real Estate Tech Startup

Now let’s go concrete. The following are examples of how leverage increases in the real estate industry:

  1. Laborer: Someone orders them around in a construction site to carry things around. A laborer with more leverage uses tools like a bulldozer to gain more power and get paid more.
  2. General Contractor: They hire and coordinate a team of laborers. They are accountable to the results, thus having more risk if things go wrong but a higher reward than laborers if things go right.
  3. Property Developer: This might be a general contractor who did a bunch of remodeling, and now they search for run-down places to fix and sell them. They might even raise money from investors. To do this, they need more skills like understanding markets, neighborhoods, government approvals, and more.
  4. Famous Developer or Architect: They gain a reputation for doing great projects, and that by itself increases the value of a project without much additional effort.
  5. Urban Real Estate Developer: They build entire master-planned communities like Porta Norte. They need to understand, construction, infrastructure, greenfield development, earth movement, urbanism, market dynamics, marketing, politics, financing, management, architecture, and a bunch of other skills.
  6. Real Estate Fund: They invest in property developers, real estate developers, hotels, malls, etc. They understand the financial markets, raising money, corporate governance, and real estate. They may not want to manage workers or operate a project.
  7. Real Estate Technology Startup (aka proptech): They understand real estate, the industry’s inefficiencies, technology, how to recruit developers, write code, build the right product, and raise money from Venture Capitalists. A proptech would combine all types of leverages:
    • Labor of the highest output: computer engineers, product managers, and designers.
    • Money from venture capitalists and their own.
    • Media using the internet for distribution.
    • Code to create software.

This venture is a very high risk, high reward that could end up with hundreds of millions or billions of dollars and an IPO.

Develop Leverage

If you want to be more effective, then you must arm yourself with leverage. Your impact becomes bigger by combining all types of leverages aligned towards a vision.

Ask yourself: Am I skilled in the newer types of leverages? What are my strengths in every kind of leverage? What is my rate in each leverage? Rate them from 1 to 10. Ask the people who know you best how they would rate you in each type of leverage. What came out of my exercise is the following:

Black and White M - Number

It is much easier for me to improve 2 points in code or media rather than 2 points in labor, and it will help me improve my abilities to use newer and less competed types of leverage. I invite you to do this simple exercise.

Reflect on what type of leverage you need in your life. Right now, it is more important for me to learn about media leverage; that is why I have invested in my communication skills by creating my podcast, YouTube channel, and blog. I lead a project that benefits the most from this type of leverage. If I wanted to start a proptech startup or invest in them, I would invest in code leverage.

Make sure you pay attention to the most useful leverage for you right now and create a roadmap.

Learn about leverage to allocate time, money and effort well. It will help you be more effective, recognize trends and how things grow big. As Charlie Munger once said:

What helps everyone is to get in something that’s going up, and it just carries you along without much talent or work.

  1. Some concepts in this blog post came from the extended tweetstorm of Naval Ravikant:

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Book Review: Developing My Life

The book, Developing: My Life is about the life of real estate developer William “Bill” Zeckendorf Jr. He was a pioneer who helped revitalize neighborhoods in New York and Santa Fe, New Mexico.

He developed many New York projects until 1987, when the stock market crashed and left him in a terrible financial situation. After that, he moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he continued real estate development. In Santa Fe, he was involved in community affairs with universities, hospitals, performing arts, and more.

Bill’s strength and focus was in structuring the project, which means envisioning a project, buying the land, choosing an architect, securing financing, hiring contractors, and placing a team that would follow through.

This book talks a lot about generations. His father, William Zeckendor Sr. was one of the biggest and most famous developers in the United States. His two sons have a billion-dollar real estate development business. His grandchildren are almost all involved in real estate.

Real estate development is a craft where the most common path to get in is by apprenticeships through family businesses. It is tough to get into the business because you need a lot of capital, expertise, and connections.

Development is slow, and having many projects under your belt might take decades. This book helps you identify some patterns and learn from someone who was once the most active developer in New York—one of the world’s most sophisticated markets. I recommend this book to people who want to improve their judgment on real estate development or better understand how cities get built.

Bill’s life story is full of warning tales. It demonstrates how someone so knowledgeable in real estate can make small fortunes in many projects but lose their shirt when a deal goes sour or when the market dries up. In the last chapter, “Summing Up,” Bill opened up on what happened to him and his father, explaining the concept of “developer’s disease.”

“After suffering with my father through the demise of his company and personal bankruptcy, I was determined never to let that happen to me. Still, many years later, I, too, succumbed to what ultimately took him down. I call it developer’s disease.

Developer’s disease is a rare but highly contagious condition that afflicts certain developers. They hire the best architects. Their projects are the most admired. They’re financially very successful. They start with one project at a time. Then one project grows into another and another until they have many projects—some would say too many—underway. They begin to take on the most difficult projects, not just to put up buildings but remaking whole neighborhoods. Their goal is no longer making money; it’s being a savior. And they are treated royally for their pains. Based on their sterling records, financial institutions rush to provide money, and investors clamor to partner on their projects. And then, just as these developers are riding high, invincible, a deal goes sour or the market turns, and their luck runs out. Developer’s disease mows them down.

That’s pretty much what happened to me. After a cautious start in the 1970s, by the middle of the 1980s, I was the busiest developer in New York City, with a full plate of deals in progress and a full-blown, if undiagnosed, case of developer’s disease…

…Were I to make my career over, I might undertake fewer projects, juggle fewer balls, and steer clear of personal guarantees. But I wouldn’t for a second choose another field. I can’t think of anything more challenging, more satisfying, more frustrating, and more fun than real estate development.”

Favorite quotes:

“Bill would chase a deal, secure financing, and then pore over the plans with the architect. But as soon as the first shovel hit the ground, he moved on to the next deal.”

“One of the challenges in a renovation is something most people don’t think about: you have little control over the construction workers. When a new building goes up, construction proceeds in an orderly fashion, floor by floor. The floors’ sides remain open, so you can readily see who’s doing what, and where and when. But in renovations, workers are hard to track; they are all over the building at any given time. We found that some of them were hiding in rooms, literally sleeping on the job.”

“These things happen: projects that look good on paper for one reason or another don’t pan out.”

“Big is key for turning around a decaying neighborhood. A small building won’t change anything; the infusion of high-quality new apartments must be sufficient to upgrade the available housing stock.”

“As a further amenity—one not offered before in a New York apartment building—the one and two-bedroom units were laid out so they could be combined easily into larger apartments. This provided to be an effective marketing tool, and designing interiors so the apartments could be readily joined became a Zeckendorf trademark.”

“For me, the thrill of developing was not in watching a building go up: I seldom spent any time on job sites, leaving construction supervision to my project managers. My passion was putting together the deal. I loved every aspect of it: finding a property, assembling a site, securing financing, hiring an architect, and working on the plans. Once we broke ground, I was happy to turn over day-to-day supervision, only stepping back in if a problem arose or we needed more financing.”

“Most developers like to hold on to commercial buildings, leasing out the office space as an ongoing source of income. However, I didn’t want to be a landlord any more than I wanted to be a hotelier and preferred the business model of our residential condos: sell off the individual units as quickly as possible and get out.”

“With apartment sizes ranging from studios to two bedrooms, the Vanderbilt was aimed at younger buyers. To attract this market, we put in a state-of-the-art health club with a swimming pool, sauna, and basketball and squash courts.”

“Building apartments near a hospital center is good for business: doctors welcome the convenience, and buyers find it reassuring to have a top-flight medical care close at hand.”

“Big projects take more time and money and involve more parties. All of that ups the ante. In executing the four biggest projects of my career, I discovered the many ways a project could go right—or horribly wrong.”

“The terms were stiff, however, and we had to make personal guarantees on the loan. I always tried to avoid personal guarantees: if you put up personal assets as collateral and the project runs into trouble, you risk losing your assets.”

“Negative opinions come with the territory: developers automatically get a bad rap because what we do inevitably means change.”

“A complicated project can easily take ten or more years to come to fruition, exposing the developer to uncontrollable changes in market conditions.”

“The key to a successful assemblage is to keep your intentions quiet. You don’t want to tip your hand and have other developers swoop in and tie up parcels you’re after. Nor do you want the owners of the lots to jack up the prices, or rent-controlled tenants to stick you up for exorbitant relocation fees.”

“And we were a full-service organization, not merely developing our own properties as a managing partner with equity but also offering our expertise as project managers.”

“Between New York and Santa Fe, I had more than a dozen projects in the works when the stock market crashed in 1987. I was leveraged to the hilt, and it was only a matter of time before I ran aground.”

“Unless a developer has very deep pockets or a large portfolio of properties, leverage is the only way to finance a deal. I seldom financed a project alone. Having multiple partners allowed me to share the risk, but also meant sharing the returns. And often, it meant taking my money out to invest it in my next venture before I could reap the profits.”

“Inevitably, if a project is going to make a big impact on a community, somebody is bound to oppose it.”

“I learned a long time ago not to assume that anything is impossible.”

“And while my father and I usually had half a dozen or more projects underway simultaneously, my sons concentrate on one or two buildings at a time.”

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